Adial Stevenson affirmed ‘There are no gains without pains’, which might be true in some circumstance but it certainly does not apply to the Lower back pain, which in almost all cases is neither well-defined, nor has any definite cause. Moreover there are no gains (attainments) associated with it, just pains!
Lower back pain could be categorized as follows:
– Acute or short lasting – When the time of continuation of symptoms is less than four weeks
– Chronic or long lasting – When the symptoms last more than twelve weeks
– Sub-acute – When the time of continuation of symptoms is four to twelve weeks.
– The human spine is made up of 24 vertebrae which are stockpiled on top of one another to create the spinal column. The spinal column gives the body its shape and built and is the body’s main upright strength and fortification. The back portion of the spinal column forms bony discs, which create a scooped out tube known as the spinal canal when the vertebrae are stockpiled on top of each other. The spinal canal surrounds the spinal cord as it courses through the spine.
The lower back region is made up of five lumbar vertebrae known asL1, L2, L3, L4, L5. In between these vertebrae are positioned, the intervertebral discs, made up of fibro cartilage, which act as buttresses, inhibiting the vertebrae from scrubbing together while at the same time safeguarding the spinal cord. Nerves emanate from the spinal cord through small openings within the vertebrae and furnish the muscles with perceptions and carry impulses to the muscles producing motion. Steadiness of the spine is equipped through the ligaments as well as muscles of the back, of the lower back and the abdomen. Arranged on the back of the spinal column are the facet joints or small bony knobs, which link each vertebra together. Where these nodes come face to face, they form a joint that clamps the two vertebrae. The arrangement of the facet joints of the lumbar spine permits independence of motion and activity, such while bending forwards and backwards. Articular cartilage is a velvety, polished and elastic material that sheathes the ends of most joints. It permits the bone ends to move against each other safely and without rubbing.
Amongst the miscellaneous causes of lower back pain, sprains and stretch in the muscles and soft tissues of the back are the most common. The greatest number of lower back pain drops down in this grade. Twists or strain in the muscles and soft tissues of the back or an exaggerated movement of these muscles can prompt a damaged or split ligament in the back which could cause lower back pain. Usually during overburdening of the back such as lifting up some heavy weight, performance of gymnastics, playing the game of football, one could experience pain in the region which is sideways to the vertebral column, on account of the fact that these activities not only place a great deal of stress on the bones in the lower back but also demand that the gymnasts or sportsmen should perpetually over elongate their spine. This could result in a stress fracture on one or both sides of the vertebrae (spondylolysis) and in case it causes a spinal bone to become weak and relocate out of its original place, then the condition is known as Spondylolisthesis.
An intervertebral disc could also get damaged, for instance a scratch in a disc or protrusion of a disc. As a normal aging process, the discs begin to slacken and reduce in size; as a consequence the vertebrae and facet joints rub against one another.
Ligament and joint functionality also diminishes as one ages, leading to Spondylolisthesis, which causes the vertebrae to move much more than they should.